Learn Uyghur , Lesson 1-- Uyghurche Ogineyli - 1-ders



How to Learn Uyghur

Three Methods:

Uyghur, or Uighur (ئۇيغۇرچە, Uyghurche, Уйғурчә, 维吾尔语) is a Turkic language spoken by approximately 10 million people in the Uyghur Autonomous Region in western China, as well as in the neighboring countries of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. While much research about the Uyghur culture and traditions have appeared in English in the past 20 years, it can be difficult to find resources if you want to learn the language – particularly free ones. However, if you start with the alphabet and have a little patience, you can learn to speak and read Uyghur proficiently.Amät bolsun!(Good luck!)

Steps

Pronouncing the Uyghur Alphabet

  1. Choose the alphabet you want to study.The Uyghur language can be written using Cyrillic, Latin, or Arabic characters. Which alphabet you choose to study may depend to some extent on whether you plan to travel to an area where Uyghur is spoken. If your first language is English or a European language, you may find it easier to learn Uyghur with the Latin alphabet.
    • If you plan to travel in Russia, or in former Soviet republics, such as Kazakhstan, study the Uyghur Cyrillic alphabet.
    • The Arabic alphabet is used primarily by Uyghurs in China. However, the Latin alphabet is also used in the same areas as an auxiliary alphabet.
    • Kansas University has an introductory textbook for the modern Uyghur language available to download for free at . This textbook includes a comparison chart of the characters in each alphabet.
  2. Start with the consonant sounds also found in English.There are 23 consonants in the Uyghur language:b, p, t, ch, x, d, r, z, j, s, sh, gh, f, g, k, g, ng, l, m, n, h, w,andy. When using the Latin-based alphabet, most of these consonants are pronounced the same or similarly to their English equivalents.
    • For example, the Uyghurjis pronounced like thejin the English word "judge." Thechin Uyghur is pronounced like thechin the English word "itch."
  3. Practice the 3 consonant sounds not found in English.The lettersq, gh,andxproduce sounds for which there is no real equivalent in the English language. However, with practice you can pronounce the sounds correctly. If you're a native English speaker, these sounds may take a little more work.
    • The Uyghurqsounds most like an Englishk, except that the back of your tongue touches your soft palate when you say it.
    • The soundghis pronounced at the very back of your mouth, sounding similar to a French or Germanr.
    • The Uyghurxis pronounced similarly to thechin the Scottish word "loch" or the German "ach," but more to the back of your mouth.
  4. Distinguish betweenjandzh.In the Arabic script, there are two different letters to represent these sounds. In the Latin script, thezhconsonant blend is only used for foreign words and words that imitate sounds.
    • For example,zhappears in the Uyghur word "zhurnal," which means "journal" (or "magazine").
  5. Classify vowel sounds for harmonic purposes.Like other Turkic languages, Uyghur makes use of vowel harmony, through which vowels in suffixes are changed to harmonize with the original stem. As you learn the vowel sounds, categorize them as back or front and rounded or unrounded. While you don't necessarily have to worry about vowel harmony when you're beginning to pronounce the Uyghur alphabet, these distinctions will be important later on.
    • There are 2 back rounded vowels:uando. The Uyghurusounds like theooin the English word "groove." The Uyghurosounds like theoin the English word "not."
    • There are 2 back unrounded vowels:aandi. Both of these vowels are both back and front vowels. Theiis not subject to vowel harmony. The Uyghurasounds like theain the English word "palm." The Uyghurisounds like theeein the English word "see."
    • There are 3 front rounded vowels:ü,ö, ande. The Uyghurüsounds like the Germanü, or like theewin "eww." The Uyghurösounds like the Germanö, or like theiin the English word "sir." the Uyghuresounds like theain the English word "cat."
    • Aside fromaandi, which can be either front or back vowels,ëis also a front unrounded vowel. It sounds like theein the English word "pen."
  6. Place stress on the first syllable that ends with a consonant.Uyghur stress patterns can get complex. However, generally speaking, the firstclosedsyllable (one that ends with a consonant) in a word gets the primary stress.
    • Words that are borrowed from other languages typically retain the same stress pattern in Uyghur that they have in their original language. For example, in the Uyghur "gimnastika" (for "gymnastics"), the stress is on the second syllable.
    • Uyghur words can take multiple suffixes. In most cases, the primary stress falls on the last syllable of the stem or root word.

Understanding Basic Uyghur Grammar

  1. Juxtapose words to show equivalency.Uyghur does not have a verb similar to the English verb "to be." If you want to say what something or someoneis, you simply put the two words next to each other.
    • For example, the literal translation ofbu kitabin Uyghur is "this book." However, its meaning is "this is a book."
    • Use the same pattern with people. For example,Meryem oqughuchimeans "Märyäm is a student" (literal translation: "Märyäm student").
  2. Add the question particlemuto ask yes or no questions.If your question can be answeredyesorno, attach the suffix (particle)muto the end of the noun or adjective that you're asking the question about.
    • For example, "U deptermu?" means "Is that a notebook [yes or no]?" It can help you remember this to think of the French habit of adding the wordnonto the end of statements to make a question.
    • The particlemuhas different uses in Uyghur. When placed at the end of a noun or pronoun, it can also mean "also" or "too." For example, the question "U zhurnalmu?" means "Is that a magazine?" If you say "Awumuzhurnalmu?" you are asking "Is that a magazine too?" The firstmumeans "also" or "too," while the second indicates the question is a yes or no question.
  3. Place question words after the object.In English, words such aswhoorwhatare used to ask a question. In Uyghur, this word simply replaces the noun and follows the word that you're asking about.
    • For example, you would say "Adilkim?" to ask "Who is Adil?"Kimis the Uyghur word for "who," so the literal translation of the sentence would be "Adil who?"
  4. Useemesto negate a sentence.When the wordemesappears at the end of a Uyghur sentence, it serves to negate everything that the sentence just said. When speaking the language, it is generally considered more polite to respond negatively usingemesrather than to simply sayyaq(no).
    • For example, if someone asked you "Awu kitabmu?" ("Is that a book?"), you might respond "Yaq, kitab emes" ("No, that is not a book") or "U kitab emes" ("That is not a book").
  5. Place adjectives before the noun they modify.As in English, Uyghur adjectives are usually placed before the noun. However, no articles (equivalent to English words such asaorthe) are needed in Uyghur.
    • For example, you would say "yëngi kitab" to mean "new book," or "qizil orunduq" to mean "red chair."
  6. Use different conjunctions for adjectives and nouns.In English, the conjunctionandis used to combine any type of word. You would say "She is intelligent and beautiful" just as you would say "Both Mary and Sara are friendly." However, in Uyghur, the wordweis used to join nouns, while the wordhemis used to join adjectives or verbs.
    • For example, you would say "Abliz, Sidiq, we Erkin" to mean "Abliz, Sidiq, and Ärkin." However, you would say "Ular hem chong hem ëgiz" to mean "They are both elderly and tall."
    • If you're joining two complete sentences, you can only use the conjunctionwe. The wordhemcan be used to joined two verbs, but only in the same sentence.
  7. Add suffixes to verb stems to indicate relations between words.Suffixes added to the verb stem enable Uyghur verbs to agree with their subject in person and number. Suffixes are also added to indicate tense (past, present, future), mood (such as imperative or conditional), and voice (whether active or passive).
    • Uyghur suffixes are also added to contrast direct information and indirect information.
    • Like many European languages, there are also formal suffixes in Uyghur that are used to indicate politeness or respect.

Immersing Yourself in the Language

  1. Label items around your home in Uyghur.Labeling things with the corresponding Uyghur word can be a good way to expand your vocabulary. It is also a good way to train your brain to start thinking in Uyghur. Rotate your labels, adding new ones each week.
    • Start with basic items, and gradually add new items as you internalize the basic vocabulary. Try to focus on items that have Uyghur words, not loan words from English or another language.
    • In addition to the word for the item itself, you can also add additional descriptive words, such as color or number words, to further expand your Uyghur vocabulary.
  2. Converse with native speakers in person or online.When you're learning a language, there is no substitute for talking and listening to a native speaker. A native speaker can help correct grammatical errors and tell you when you're pronouncing something incorrectly.
    • Keep in mind that the Uyghur language is spoken differently by people in different regions. Try to focus on a particular region so you don't get conflicting advice.
    • Websites such as My Language Exchange () exist to match language-learners with native speakers. You can chat on the site, or set up a video chat using a service such as Skype.
  3. Cook Uyghur recipes and learn the names of the ingredients.Search online for simple Uyghur dishes that you can cook at home. You may even be able to find recipes written in Uyghur. However, even if the recipe is in English, you can still learn a lot through cooking and eating traditional foods.
    • In addition to cooking the food, look up information about the cultural traditions associated with that particular dish. For example, it may be a standard daily meal or something only eaten on special occasions.
    • If your recipe is in English, find the Uyghur words for the ingredients and repeat them as you cook your meal.
  4. Stream Uyghur music online.YouTube and other free file-sharing sites have music videos and songs in Uyghur that you can listen to if you want to immerse yourself in the language. The rhythm and repetitive lyrics of songs enable you to more easily learn and recall the words.
    • You can find Uyghur music as well as links to other media content on the website for the London Uyghur Ensemble at .
  5. Read and watch news and radio in Uyghur.Broadcasts online in Uyghur are more than just a way to immerse yourself in the language. They also give you the opportunity to learn more about Uyghur culture and the issues that affect the Uyghur people.
    • Radio Free Asia has articles and broadcasts in Uyghur at . The website uses Arabic script rathe than the Latin alphabet.

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Video

  • You can access a free Uyghur-English dictionary online at .
  • Uyghur can serve as a gateway to other languages. If you speak Uyghur, you should be able to learn Uzbek in a few weeks. You could also pick up Turkish, Kazakh, or Kirghiz with a few months' study.
  • There are more materials for learning Uyghur available in Mandarin and Russian than there are in English.
  • Be extremely mindful of the Uyghur people's complicated relationship with the Han Chinese. The Uyghur, like the Tibetans, are not ethnically, linguistically, or religiously related to the Chinese, and those differences have sparked tremendous tension regarding the issue of cultural and state autonomy in the Xinjiang region as well as fears of Pan-Turkicism.





Video: Learn Uyghur Language | Review of the Uyghur Beginner Textbook for Language Students

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Date: 11.12.2018, 18:27 / Views: 81372